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王小理:網絡生物安全:大國博弈的另類疆域

文章來源:學習時報   發布時間:2019-04-24  【字號:     】  

  網絡生物安全是指網絡安全、網絡實體安全以及生命科學與生物安全等學科間的一種新興交叉領域,旨在理解生命醫學相關網絡空間、網絡實體及其供應鏈、基礎設施系統遭受惡意監視、入侵以及其他有害活動侵害過程及其狀態脆弱性,并為應對此類威脅事件,開發和實施預防、防護、削弱、調查和歸因機制,維持相關科技產業管理系統的安全、競爭力與穩健性。

  近年來,網絡生物安全融合網絡安全,源于并超越生物武器、重大傳染病、生物科技兩用等經典生物安全框架,以一種顛覆性力量橫貫生物科技創新鏈和產業鏈,并與國際網絡軍備、生物軍控相互交融,成為影響國際戰略穩定的新興變量。對此新興事物,宜保持清醒、放眼未來,下好先手棋。

  何以可能:網絡生物安全的興起邏輯與內涵

  催生網絡生物安全形態的根本力量,根源于新一輪生物科技變革。當前,前沿生物科技創新,越來越依賴全球高端儀器裝備(及供應鏈)和計算機網絡。高通量測序技術、高性能基因編輯技術、生物大數據技術、合成生物學等使能工具的應用,標志著生物科技研究方法體系向自動化、信息化、智能化、工程化轉型。美國科學院《21世紀的“新生物學”:如何確保美國引領即將到來的生物學革命》報告強調,“信息是新生物學的基本單元”。生物科技研發的數字化是大勢所趨,網絡生物安全隨之興起也是勢所必然。

  信息網絡的安全問題滲透到生物科技領域。科研機構研發人員、企業生產制造人員、政府管理人員等使用計算機、智能設備來分析DNA序列、操作實驗室設備和存儲生物信息,但通常沒有意識到新技術的便利通常伴隨新的風險隱患。從DNA“特洛伊木馬”數字攻擊,到高價值的生物科技知識產權或敏感的個人健康信息被網絡竊取,從關鍵的聯網醫療儀器和設備遭受網絡攻擊,到“云”中共享的基因組數據完整性遭破壞和未經授權的訪問等,相關的計算系統、軟件和算法自帶的網絡生物安全風險,一旦放在“安全放大鏡”下審視,安全漏洞的發現幾率將激增。特別是科技系統、衛生部門、農業部門、海關部門、商業系統的生物信息資源集成、技術與物項的監測監管信息平臺,很有可能在未來成為網絡生物安全的新興風險點。

  網絡信息安全與生物安全互動,賦予既有生物安全框架全新內涵。網絡生物安全技術通過操控信息,間接操控人和技術、物項,使得虛擬生物安全與現實生物安全之間的界限正變得越來越模糊。這樣使得原本用于加速生物科技研發或產業化的尖端設備、裝備、生產線,也被納入生物安全系統。如果說,傳統生物安全還局限于特定的生物產品(重大烈性病原體或毒素)和前沿技術的終端應用、局部物項等范圍的話,那么新興的網絡生物安全則囊括整個生物科技研發和產業鏈條中的每個環節,成為工具方法安全問題、過程安全問題、科技安全問題、全產業鏈安全問題,這使得“生物安全”概念的內涵和外延顯著拓展。

  戰略新疆域:美國積極運籌網絡生物安全

  作為信息技術強國和生物技術強國,近年來美國各層級積極謀劃和推動網絡生物安全領域的工作。

  聚焦概念本質。美國科學促進會、聯邦調查局(FBI)大規模殺傷性武器部、聯合國區域間犯罪和司法研究所等2014年發布的《生命科學領域大數據的國家與跨國安全影響》報告強調,利用敏感生物數據將可能對個人、組織和國家產生嚴重的經濟、政治、健康和社會危害,生物信息(數據)安全興起并成為國家生物安全的一部分,但其時尚聚焦在大數據及其分析技術方面,沒有深層次觸及次生信息的流動完整性和操控問題。2014—2016年,在FBI資助下,美國科學院先后召開三次以“捍衛生物經濟”為主題的研討會,抽絲剝繭,逐步逼近新科技變革下的生物安全新面貌實質,最終提出“網絡生物安全”新概念。美國2018版《國家生物防御戰略》吸納了有關建議,隱晦指出“要防止敵對行為者為惡意目的獲取或使用生物材料、設備和專業知識”。

  強化理念引導。對這一新興戰略安全領域,美國國防部戰略司令部2017年設立一個旨在評估生物科技基礎設施安全性的研究項目,內布拉斯加大學國家戰略研究所等4家單位參與,相關成果目前尚處于保密當中,但該項目涉及的兩個研究方向“破壞生物科學基礎設施”和“制造危險生物材料”已開始得到美國學術界專家的認可。有關智庫,如美國生物防御藍絲帶委員會、伍德羅·威爾遜中心、國防部大規模殺傷性武器研究中心等,圍繞生物信息安全、生物實驗室的連通性和智能性、生物虛擬化帶來的風險等相關主題積極發聲,在業界引起強烈關注。同時,2018年以來,作為美國戰略科技力量,美國西北太平洋國家實驗室、桑迪亞國家實驗室、洛斯阿拉莫斯國家實驗室、阿貢國家實驗室的專家先后撰文,呼吁關注網絡生物安全治理及相關科技發展。

  大膽探索實踐。科學模擬方面,美國安全研究人員能夠用嵌入人類DNA鏈中的惡意軟件感染計算機;在2019網絡和分布式系統安全研討會上,美國科研人員在一臺常用的DNA合成儀器上展示了所謂的聲學邊信道攻擊結果,并認為這可能會危害嶄露頭角的合成生物學和基于DNA的數據存儲行業。引導行業加強防范意識方面,持續審視美國生物防御BioWatch計劃的官方協調網站的潛在漏洞和系統缺陷,提出11條修復建議。在醫療衛生部門,美國健康主管部門于2018年先后成立網絡安全協調中心、發布《健康產業網絡安全實踐指南》,協調整個業界的活動。

  從發展角度來看,網絡生物安全涉及推進和加強經濟競爭力、國家安全和社會穩定,對于維持未來美國的經濟實力和地緣政治非常關鍵。網絡生物安全與美國生物科技產業戰略目標密切相關。根據FBI定義,廣義生物經濟年創造4萬億美元價值,約占美國GDP的1/ 4。同時,網絡生物安全增加了全球戰略穩定的新變量。網絡信息安全和生物安全,屬于大國戰略博弈新疆域。網絡生物安全橫跨這兩大領域,雙向提升了網絡空間軍備控制和生物武器軍備控制的重要性,使得生物安全有望成為與核安全、網絡安全并行的全球戰略穩定三極。鑒于大國競爭需要,網絡生物安全對美國的戰略價值和戰略意義自不待言。

  未雨綢繆:網絡生物安全的未來大趨勢和治理對策

  網絡生物安全形勢可能惡化。目前,網絡生物安全技術迅猛發展,全球發展不平衡問題是最大的安全問題。網絡生物安全領域美國一支獨大,從引領和影響世界生物科技創新和生物安全格局看,網絡生物安全技術非常適合美國的科技優勢和戰略構想,經過3—5年的孕育,美國政府很有可能于2025年前后在網絡生物安全領域開疆破土、呼風喚雨。

  鑒于這一國際形勢,宜積極主動,有所作為。首先,應樹立嶄新的生物安全觀念,用長期戰略框架審視網絡生物安全。貫徹落實總體國家安全觀,加強本領域基礎理論探索和智庫研究,客觀評估網絡生物安全態勢和戰略定位,在國家生物安全立法、生物安全管理條例等起草修訂過程中有所體現。

  其次,保持戰略清醒,避免戰略被擠壓。認清生物安全核心裝備和技術卡脖子現狀,認清在生物軟件、算法、數據庫與國際先進水平的差距,認清網絡生物安全戰略技術差距,利用本領域戰略機遇期窗口,謀劃科技發展戰略布局,凝聚一批網絡生物安全領域戰略人才,以便在未來發展競爭中謀取一席之地。

  再次,實施外交和國家安全資源的再平衡。在網絡軍備控制、生物軍備控制等國際既有框架基礎上,啟動前置性工作,加強網絡生物安全政策儲備、議程方案儲備;在涉及國家安全與發展重大利益的網絡生物安全問題上,及時發聲、回應、提出反制措施,以人類命運共同體的長遠視野,維護國際戰略穩定。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

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